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The words we use and how we use them matters

Human beings are rather frail creatures. We don’t have teeth like a lion and we can’t outrun a cheetah. We rely on our societies to give us an edge for survival. It is programmed into us to seek acceptance in the group and to both rely on and support those around us. There are some outliers such as selfish people who seek to amass wealth and power at the expense of others. There is also the myth of the rouged individual making it alone against the elements such as the mountain man who is completely self-reliant and lives in the woods alone with no need of human contact or support other than a rifle and a knife. Yet, who made that riffle and knife? Who raised and suckled that mountain man as an infant? We are all depend on others and though there are outliers it is human nature to form social bonds. Without them, we face extinction as a species. These bonds are cemented with social glue.

That glue has to be constantly reinforced. One of the ways this is done is in daily social interaction that carry messages that may not be obvious. When two people pass each other and one says, “hello” and the other replies “hello”, they are communicating more than the words. In this seemingly unimportant action, the first person is really saying, “I acknowledge you as a human being and a part of my group. I recognize your worth.” The second person is saying, “I also acknowledge you as a human being and a part of my group. I recognize your worth as well.”

The two people could be fiends or complete strangers. They may have dinner that evening or never see each other again. None of that matters. A bond has been established that will be repeated throughout the day with others to hold the society together.

It is common for people who are provided with a service, such as patrons in a restaurant, to say “Thank you” to the server. This actually says, “I acknowledge you as a human being. As such, you are important to me and I appreciate what you have provided.” This message strengthens the social glue and forms a bond between server and served.

A Roman citizen two-thousand years ago who owned slaves would not say thank you. The bond between slave and owner is not one of group. Rather, it is one of threats and fear of punishment. The owner uses the slave not as a human being but as an object with no more thought than would be given to pot or pan.

When a person being served says Thank you”, the standard response by the server has been “Your welcome” or "It is my pleasure." This actually says, “I acknowledge you as a human being and a member of my group. I provided the service because you are important to me.” This exchange of “Thank you” and “Your welcome” completes a circle of relationship that affirms the bond and builds social glue.

The words spoken, however, must be sincere to form social glue. An insincere "Thank you" or "Your welcome" erodes that glue.

Within the last few decades, another response has become popular when someone says “Thank you” after being provided a service. You can now hear the words, “No problem” spoken. This actually says, “You have no worth in my eyes, I only did this because it wasn’t too much of an inconvenience for me. If it had been, I wouldn’t have done it.” Not only does this fail to complete the circle to form social glue, it actually erodes the glue and drives people apart.

The words we choose to use are important, yet communication is more than words. 80% of communication is non-verbal. The tone of voice and body language can convey much about what a person means. Consider a response from someone who has been asked to make a report at work.

One person might response in a flat tone that simply says that the report will be done. Another might say these words with drawn out sarcasm reflecting anger, possibly from past resentments and hurts. Still another might reply in an excited voice showing enthusiasm and thanks for an opportunity. Only the first and third responses build social glue. The second erodes the relationship and damages the group as a whole.

Body language also colours a response. Consider the same three words delivered with 1) a neutral expression of acknowledgement, 2) a face crunched up in anger or 3) a wide eyed expression of excitement. Again, the subtext behind the words can say more than those words themselves.

An important point in these exchanges is the sense of group and how far it extends. In a large city, people will rarely say hello to someone they don’t recognize. Those who do can be looked on with suspicion as if they are trying to get something. The concept of group can become narrowed to include co-workers, friends and even be confined to family alone. Everyone else they meet on the street is seen with the same importance as a lamp post. In Rural communities the concept of group will often become larger, taking in an entire village, town or region.

During the Covid-19 Pandemic, people in Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia put together a package of gifts for complete strangers; sailors on a ship tied up off shore after a case of Covid-19 was detected in the crew. The ship had water and food, so the people in Port Hawkesbury sent out fresh donuts, local honey, caps, scarves and other items to cheer the crew up. The captain sent his heart filled thanks and said it was the kindest thing he had ever experienced in all his years at sea.

Yet, our sense of group sometimes does not include those who are marginalized. Does a homeless person living on the streets deserve the social glue of “hello” or the consideration given to a street lamp? How much power to overcome our common problems of diseases, poverty, hunger and safety is lost because those who are members of minorities are denied equal consideration, respect and opportunity. Micro groups have their own internal social glues that hold their segregated communities together, yet where they rub against the majority communities there can be tension and friction.

Think of how powerful a world we could live in if everyone was bound by a common social glue, not to homogenize communities in an attempt to assimilate everyone and destroy cultures, but to draw us together with the recognition of our common humanity in times of need and triumph in order to build stronger ties while recognizing the power of diverse cultures to find solutions and enrich each person’s life. So much more could be accomplished if animosity and fear for those who are different vanished. Extending our sense of group and creating social glue between everyone will inspire more minds to tackle the problems we face and bind us together as humans. The words we chose to use and the way we use them can create or destroy that social glue.

Until he retired from the computer field to pursue a writing career full time, David A. Wimsett was the owner of an IT consulting firm and for decades practiced as a Project Management Professional with a Masters Certificate in Project Management. He has seen firsthand how poor communication is the leading cause of project failure. Mr. Wimsett is the author of several novels and a blog that discuss communication and social issues.

Independent Publishing – The 30,000 Foot Overview

I've been an independent author/publisher for several years. There are many things to be considered to successfully publish books. Here are some observations from my own personal experiences

You need to write a good book that people will want to read. Then you need to go through a process of several rewrites where you actually craft the book into a marketable form. It is highly advisable to hire a third party, professional editor. A friend or relative will not tell you what needs to be fixed to make the book better because they don’t want to hurt your feelings. A professional editor can work with you to help make the book sellable in a way that retains what you want to say. Over a million titles are published every year and a poor book has little chance of selling well or even at all.

Printed books should to be designed and typeset in a way that is pleasing to the eye and easy to read. A cover, whether for a printed book or an eBook, must be created that will entice people to click on it when they’re browsing through an online site or pick it up and examine it in a physical store. This is extremely important because people do judge books by their covers.

Creating a winning cover requires graphic design skills as well as an understanding of the book business and marketing, along with a little psychology. If you possess the tools and background, you can do this yourself. Otherwise, it pays to hire professionals. Like the established publishing houses, independent publishers must know what they can do themselves and when to work with partners.

You must choose a printer and a distributor. There are two choices for printing your book.

The traditional printing option is the offset press. Digital files containing text and images are etched onto aluminum plates as an image. The etched areas receive oil based ink while the non-etched areas are coated in water. The plates are placed on metal rollers that spin and transfer, or offset, the ink to rubber rollers that then contains just the ink in the form of the image. There is a set of metal and rubber rollers on top to print one side of the page and a second set on the bottom to print the other side. Paper from large rolls pass between the two rubber rollers as a web to transfer the ink to the top and bottom of the pages that is later trimmed into sheets and bound into books. Printing this way is very fast and cost effective per page, however, there is a startup cost to make plates for each page. Because of this, offset printing is generally used for print runs of 500 books or more at a time. These are stored in a warehouse and shipped when orders are placed. The cost of subsequent runs will be lower because the plates can be reused many times.

A new technology called print-on-demand (POD) has arisen in the past few decades. This uses the same technology as laser printers to place ink on paper. The startup cost is low because the printed image comes directly from a digital format, usually an Adobe PDF file, without the need to create metal plates. However, the cost of each page printed is higher and the printing process is slower. Print-on-demand can produce many books at a time or just a single book. This gives independent publishers great flexibility. As the number of books can vary, books that are created with POD are often produced after orders are placed and the run is just for the number of copies in the order, reducing upfront costs for publishers and eliminating the need to store books in a warehouse. However, because the process costs more per page than offset printing the price per copy will need to be set higher or publishers will need to reduce their profits below that of books printed in offset presses in order to compete in the market.

The question of which to use depends on how much money a publisher can invest at the start. One advantage of POD is that changes to the text or images of a book are done electronically, can be made quickly and will appear in the next run. If changes are made to books using offset presses, new plates will need to be made and paid for.

Both color and black and white books can be printed with either process by running the paper through four printing stations. Each station prints one ink color; cyan, magenta yellow or black. This is referred to as CMYK with the K representing black. These four colors are overprinted on the paper and blend together to render full color images.

You can sell books directly to stores yourself on consignment where you order and pay for the printing and shipping and then hand deliver or ship copies to stores who have agreed to carry them. This makes you the distributor. Accepting books on consignment means that stores only pay you if books are sold, thus eliminating their risk and offering an enticement to carry them. For each copy sold, stores will give you the cover price less a wholesale discount. The discount rate is usually 40% of the cover price.

Stores will generally not keep your book on their shelves indefinitely. A book that does not sell takes up space that more popular books can use, so stores may want you to take back unsold copies after a period of time, depending on the policy of the store. This is usually six to twelve months. You will need to pick up these unsold copies or ask the stores to ship them back to you. Stores will usually require that you pay for shipping. You can also ask them to destroy unsold books, a process called pulping. If you do this, it is best to require the stores to tear off the cover of the unsold books and mail them to you for verification. You won’t get paid for unsold copies but if the books are destroyed you won’t incur shipping charges that might be greater than the price of the book.

If you enter into an agreement with a book distributor, stores can order from them. For POD books, a distributor will pay you for copies sold less printing costs, the wholesale discount to stores and a distribution fee. The printing cost of books produced on offset presses are paid for in advance so the compensation is only reduced by the wholesale discount and distribution fee.

Having a distributor greatly expands the range of where your books are sold; across town, across a country or around the world. Contracting with a distributor relieves you of the effort to ship and track book sales, however most distributors offer few marketing services beyond listing books in a catalogue. It is a good idea to contact booksellers directly and ask them to stock your titles. This can be done by sending emails, making phone calls and mailing paper tip sheets that announce the book, its description, an image of the cover, price and ordering information. People are often inundated with emails and a piece of paper arriving in the post sometimes gets their attention better.

Most retailers will not stock a title, whether on consignment or through a distributor, unless unsold copies can be returned after a certain period of time. As with consigned books, the period a store keeps your book on the shelf will vary depending on their policies. When POD books handled through a distributor are pulped, authors will be charged the cost of printing the book. When books are physically returned, whether they are produced using POD or on an offset press, authors will be charged for shipping.

Offering returns worries some authors who fear they will need to pay large printing and shipping fees. Since the time I began publishing, only a single copy has been returned.

Some companies both print and distribute books. These include Ingram, Lulu, Draft2Digital and Amazon through its Kindle Direct Publishing (KDP) service. There are others that can be found with an Internet search.

For some of these, such as Lulu, Draft2Digital and Amazon, you can just upload a Microsoft Word file and they will handle layout and design for a printed book or eBook. You can also use free tools provided by these companies to format books. For paper books, a Word file can deliver unsatisfactory quality. You will get a better result if you use the formatting tools provided by the printer or third party programs like Adobe InDesign or QuarkXPress to create PDF files that are uploaded. I do not recommend Microsoft Publisher as it was designed for things like flyers and not books. Another alternative is to hire a professional book designer to layout and typeset the book.

These companies often offer cover creation tools, but it is a good idea to ask someone experienced in creating book covers to either design one for you or be available to consult with you when using one with these services.

Whether you consign books yourself or use the services of a distributor, you should still send your books to a professional editor if you want people to buy them and encourage their friends and acquaintances to buy them as well.

Companies like Lulu, Digital2Draft and Amazon don’t charge upfront fees. For eBooks they, they keep a master file and send digital copies to consumers when they buy one, then pay you a percentage of the price.

Some online retailers now offer subscription models where consumers pay a monthly or yearly fee and can download a set number of books during that period. Authors are paid according to the number of pages consumers read or the amount of time spent reading. In a subscription model, up to ten copies of a title must be read to the end before the author earns the same amount of money that would come from the sale of a single eBook, making subscription services adventitious for retailers while greatly reducing the compensation for authors.

For paper books, companies like Lulu, Digital2Draft and Amazon only print copies when orders are placed using POD. As with eBooks, you receive a percentage of the sales. These percentages differ from company to company.

All distributors will usually pay 60 to 90 days after sales are made no matter what their business model is, so you should budget for this.

I use KDP for Kindle editions of my books where I get 70% of the cover price but I chose a different POD company called Ingram-Spark to print and distribute my paperback and hard cover books (Even though KDP and Draft2Digital produce paper books, they only print paperbacks and not hard covers which are preferred by libraries because they are more durable. Lulu does print both paperback and hard cover books). Ingram-Spark is a division of the Ingram Group that is the largest book distributor in the western world with tens of thousands of bookstores and libraries as clients in multiple countries.

Like Lulu, Draft2Digital and KDP, Ingram-Spark offers print-on-demand. There is a setup fee per title with Ingram-Spark but I belong to an organization called the Independent Book Publishers Association (IBPA). Through them I am able to both setup and revise titles with Ingram-Spark for free. This alone is worth the modest yearly IBPA membership fee that includes excellent webinars on publishing and co-marketing opportunities.

The reason I use Ingram-Spark instead of KDP for my printed books because I want my books to be more widely distributed than on just Amazon in order to sell them to other retailers like Barnes & Noble and Walmart, libraries and independent bookstores where I am able to hold events such as book signings and readings. None of these will purchase books from Amazon, even if you select world-wide distribution in KDP. The reasons for this are that Amazon does not offer a large enough wholesale discount to other stores or libraries and, for booksellers, Amazon is a direct competitor.

Set the price of each book so that it makes enough return on your investment in terms of money and time but doesn’t discourage readers from buying it. I compare prices of books in similar genres and sizes to mine and price within that range.

For international markets where there is a choice for specifying prices in different currencies, I base the price on U.S. dollars and look up the average exchange rate for each jurisdiction over the last three months, then round the resultant price up so that the last two digits are 99 cents.

Exchange rates vary hourly and by using an average I account for fluctuations over time. In pricing for currencies other than the Unite States it is best to round up because you will never receive the full exchange rate due to fees charged by banks and other financial institutions.

There is a strange psychological aspect of humans such that when we see something priced at $9.99 and the same product priced at $10.00, we buy the $9.99 item thinking that we are saving a whole dollar and ignoring the fact that we are actually only saving one cent. This has been shown in multiple experiments. You will always look like you are offering a bargain when the price ends in 99 cents.

You may want to adjust your price periodically as printing costs and exchange rates can change.

If you are distributing through anyone other than Amazon, you need to set a wholesale discount. This will include the distribution fee, shipping costs and a margin of profit for the booksellers. A discount of 40% will get your books listed in most online stores. To get them into libraries and physical stores you should set the discount to 50% or 55%. If you do not, the book may not be carried. A 55% wholesale discount is divided between the distributor (15% which includes the cost of shipping) and the stores (40%). If you offer a 45% wholesale discount, stores are left with just 30% of the retail price which may be enough for an online operation but will not support a bookstore with costs like rent, utilities and staff salaries.

A book on an online website or a shelf in a store can be easily overlooked amidst the mass number of books available. To get your book noticed, you need to market it. Marketing involves advertising, interaction on social media, personal appearances, getting reviews, sending press releases, appearing on podcasts, contacting bloggers to write about you and your books, establishing you as a brand and other activities.

You can hire marketing firms and publicists to do this but they can get very expensive. Doing this yourself can take a substantial commitment of time. Marketing can consume up to a quarter of your time each week. Some marketing is free and some costs.

Book reviews are important and you should contact reviewers four to six months before a book is released as reviewers often already have a backlog of books and will rarely be able to get to yours right away. A book goes from new release to backlist status after six to nine months. Many reviewers will not accept backlist books.

Be very careful of paid reviews or arrangements with other authors to review your book if you review theirs. This violates Amazon’s policies and can result in every review of your book being taken down from Amazon and Goodreads, which is owned by Amazon. It can also get very expensive very quickly and you can’t always predict what kind of review you will get or how wide the distribution of the review will be. What a reviewer says and how much influence they have applies to free reviews as well but you aren’t out any cash. Those who offer to always give a good review can raise red flags with Amazon who want reviews to be honest and organic and come from people who bought and read your book. I always purchase a Kindle edition of any book I review, even if one has been provided (I don’t review every book I’m sent). In regards to eBooks; Amazon, Kobo, Nook and Apple know how many pages a consumer reads and whether or not they finish the book.

You can create an online presence on Facebook, Twitter and other platforms. You can buy advertising in general media and on platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Amazon. Press releases to media such as bloggers, newspapers, magazines, radio and television, can get you noticed as these outlets are always looking for items to place between other news. Public appearances in person or online help you build your brand and sell books. You can contact book bloggers to arrange for reviews and interviews to get you and you book known.

I realize this is a long explanation but it is important to know what you are getting into or you could spend a lot of time and money and get poor results. It may not seem like it but this is the 30,000 foot overview. There are many more details to learn.

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David A. Wimsett has released four books through his independent publishing company, Cape Split Press. His fifth book, an illustrated edition of his women's historical fiction novel, will be released in June of 2021 and the sixth will be the final instalment of his epic fantasy series for Christmas of 2021,


Support local merchants to keep them in business for now and the future

A local bookstore in the evening with books displayed in the window.
Books are a wonderful gift. There is nothing like wandering through the shelves of a neighbourhood bookstore and mulling over titles, or sitting in a comfortable chair, perhaps with hot tea or coffee, and examining a volume while talking to the staff about books. Since the start of the pandemic, many people have turned to online shopping because of Covid-19 restrictions. This holiday season, shop as much as possible at your local brick and mortar stores which have always offered a wonderful place for readers and authors alike. Some are physically open with reduced capacity and others offer curbside delivery through a phone call or their website. Support your local merchants of all types, especially the small, independent retailers. They need your help more than ever to stay in business and still be there when the restrictions are lifted so we can socialize once more and share our love of reading together.

A method for uploading illustrated MS Word documents to KDP

If you have an Amazon KDP account, you can upload a Microsoft Word file of your book with the title page, copyright page, endorsements and the text directly to KDP as long as it does not contain illustrations.

If your Word file contains illustrations, such as a logo, maps, drawings, photographs or the like, you must take extra steps to create a file that can be uploaded to create a Kindle edition with all of those elements. This is one method that works for me. You will need to manipulate files, but this article will guide you through the process. These examples are from a Windows computer. If you are using another brand, you will have to use its control keys, applications and menu selection, such as pressing the Command key on a Macintosh instead of CTRL.

Create a Word file of your book and insert the images you want at the places where you want them to appear. Here is a pretend novel with some photographs.


Not exactly a best seller, but it will suffice for our purposes.

As you write you book, save a copy as a standard DOC or DOCX document file. Stop and save your file every hour or so. This will assure that you don’t lose your work if the computer crashes or you run out of power when unplugged.

In this example, we will use the file name My Great Novel.docx. We will store this in our default Windows Documents folder. This is your master copy where you will make all future edits. One of the great things about publishing online is that you can change the book after it is released, upload a new copy, and from that point forward anyone who downloads the book will see the changes. If Kindle users have selected to accept revisions, the new copy will appear on their Kindle reader or their desktop or mobile app automatically.

Let’s use the File Manger or equivalent on your brand of computer to inspect the Documents folder where the file is stored. Click the File Manager icon along the bottom of the screen.


The File Manager will open. Select the Documents folder from the left hand window pane. You will see the file for the book in a list along with the type of file it is and the date it was created. The kind of file is shown as Microsoft Word File under the Type column. If you don’t see the menu on the top of the screen, press the ALT key and it will appear.


For this exercise, you will need to display the files in this folder using Detail view. Click the View tab in the meny and click the Detail button. By default, file extensions associated with applications loaded on your computer, such as docx for Word documents, are hidden. To display the file extension with the file name, check the File Name Extensions box. At any rate, you will always be able to tell each file’s kind under the Type column.


To prepare the file for uploading to KDP, return to the Word window and click the File tab, then Save As. A dialog box will appear.


From here, you can specify the folder to save the file to, give it a name and specify the format the file is to be saved as. Select the file format Web Page Filtered by clicking the Save as type drop-down box. Make certain to select the filtered option and not the other web sections. When you save the document, it will create a file with the same name as the document file but with a file extension of HTM. It will also create a new sub-folder below Documents.

Close Word and go back to the File Manager.


Notice that we have two files named My Great Novel, but they are not the same. One is the original Microsoft Word Document file with a DOCX file extension (hidden in this view) and the other is a Firefox HTML Document with a hidden file extension of HTM. I use the Firefox browser. If you use another browser the Type will be different. For instance, in Chrome, your default browser, the file type will be Chrome HTM Document. If you check the File Name Extensions box under the File tab, you will see the file extensions as part of the file name.

The sub-folder My Great Novel_files under Documents was created automatically. It has the same name as the file with the characters _file added at the end. This sub-folder contains all of the images in the original document file saved as JPG files. This extension represents a specific format for holding images. It’s official name is the Joint Photographic Experts Group. Let’s double click on this new folder to see what’s inside.


Here we are looking at the sub-folder in the Large Icons view so we can see what the images look like. Every image that was in the original DOCX document was stripped out and turned into a JPG file. Each was given the name image with a sequential number appended to it.

The HTM file contains only the text of the book and links to the sub-folder where the images are stored. We need to put the text and images together in a single file that we can upload to KDP. First, highlight the HTM document in the Documents folder and cut it. Then paste it into the sub-folder that has _files appended to the end of it. In this example, the sub-folder is named My Great Novel_files. You will see a warning when you do this.


This is telling you that the HTM file has embedded references to images in the sub-folder. We will take care of this in a moment. Click Cancel to close the warning.

We now have the HTM document file and JPG image files together in one place, but they are not yet linked together yet. Open the HTM Document file.


Notice that we see the text but the images are missing. This is because there are special markers in the HTM file called image tags that tell the browser where to go in order to find the pictures. Because we moved the HTM document to the sub-folder My Great Novel_files where the images are, it is now looking for another sub-sub-folder below the current one to find the photos. We need to open the HTM document file with a text editor to make adjustments. We will use Notepad, though you can use any text editor. Do not open the file with a word processing program such as Word. Word processing programs add invisible formatting character that will make the file unreadable by a browser. Here is what the file looks like when opened in a text editor.


This is the internal Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) code that tells a browser how to display the page. Don’t panic! There is no need need to know how to write HTML code. You only have to change one thing.

HTML code is made up of text and control tags. These are bound by the less than and greeter than symbols < >. One of these control tags specifies the graphic images to be displayed. Text and images are what are displayed in a browser. Tags tell browsers how to format those text and images.

All eBooks, both Kindle and ePub, are just modified HTML files. KDP will build a Kindle edition of your book from the HTML file that you upload.

We only need to change the tag that controls the placement images on the page. That is the image tag and it is written as <img. Click Edit on the Notepad menu and then Search. The search dialog box will appear.


Enter <img for Find what and click the Find next button. You will be moved in the file to the first image tag.


Notice that the characters for <img have been highlighted. Image tags contain attributes that control how the tag will behave. Look at the line below to the attribute named src that stands for source. It tells the browser where the image file is stored so it can retrieve it and place it at this spot on the web page. There are other attributes such as width and height that tell the browser the size of the image, but you don’t have to worry about them.

In this case, the src attribute is telling the browser to look in a sub-folder named My%20Great%20Novel_files for a file named image0001. The characters %20 represent a single space to the browser and the slash character / separates the folder name from the file name.

Because we moved the HTM file in the same folder that contains the images, the instructions given to the browser causes it to look in another folder below My Great Novel_files that it thinks is also named My Great Novel_files. No such folder exists. That is why we didn’t see the photos. The browser could not find the non-existent folder so it left blank space holders where the images should have been displayed. We have to tell the browser to look in the same sub-folder where the HTM document is located in order to find the images.

Use the mouse to highlight the characters src=“My%20Great%20Novel_files/image.


Click Edit and Replace. The Replace dialog will appear.


Because you highlighted the text to be changed, it will automatically populate the field named Find what. If not, select Edit and Paste when the cursor is in this field. Type src“=image in the field Replace with. This will look for the text that directs the browser to a sub-sub-folder and replace it with a reference to the same folder where the HTM documents resides. Click Replace All to make the change for every image tag. To confirm this, search for <img again.


The src= attribute points to the file image0001 with no reference to a sub-folder, so the browser will look for the image file in the same folder as the HTM document.

Close notepad and return to the My Great Novel_files sub-folder. We see the HTM document and the image files together in one place.


If we open the HTM document. We will see the text and photos together.


Now, we have to put these files together into a format that can be uploaded to KDP by placing them inside a ZIP file. I use WinZip, but you can use any ZIP program including the one that comes with Windows 10. The ZIP file will now be in the folder using the same name as the HTM Document but with a ZIP file extension.


It is this ZIP file that you upload to KDP. Amazon will unzip it and put everything together in a Kindle edition. Upload your cover art or select one from KDP. Once your text and cover are uploaded, make certain to check the result by launching the previewer. Page through the entire book to make certain that it is formatted correctly. If you find an error, go back to the original DOCX document and make the necessary adjustments. Then follow the steps above to produce a new ZIP file and upload that.

You can also use this ZIP file to produce MOBI and ePub files on your local computer using programs like Calibre.

By following these steps, you will gain control over the look and feel of your Kindle edition to produce a quality book.

She said – He said

It’s important to clearly identify who is speaking in a story. The most common way to do this is to use the word “said” before of after the dialogue, as in “She said” or “He said.” This little word has almost magical qualities. Not only does it indicate who is speaking, it actually disappears in the minds of readers so that they are only conscience of the dialogue itself.

Mary said, “I want to get to the theater half an hour before the show.”
Tom said, “We should leave by 6:00. That will give a safe buffer.”

Sometimes, writers want to indicate the emotional state of a character who is speaking. Authors may substitute descriptive verbs and adjectives in place of the word said in an attempt to indicate the mood of the speaker. If authors want to show happiness between two people, they might write:

Mary chuckled, “I want to get to the theater half an hour before the show.”
Tom responded jovially, “We should leave by 6:00. That will give a safe buffer.”

Alternatively, if authors want to indicate irritation, they might write:

Mary chided, “I want to get to the theater half an hour before the show.”
Tom retorted haltingly, “We should leave by 6:00. That will give a safe buffer.”

Both of these examples have problems. The verbs and adjectives slow the story because readers must stop and process them. They also become tiresome to read when used repeatedly. A better way to indicate the emotional state of a speaker is to give them an action or describe a physical response.

Mary thrust her hand into the glove. She said, “I want to get to the theater half an hour before the show.”
Tom cringed. He said, “We should leave by 6:00. That will give a safe buffer.”

Here we see Mary’s anger and Tom’s reaction. Because we are describing action, we can delete the word said and just write:

Mary thrust her hand into the glove. “I want to get to the theater half an hour before the show.”
Tom cringed. “We should leave by 6:00. That will give a safe buffer.”

Because the dialogue immediately follows the action of each character, readers will know that the character involved in the action is the one who is speaking. This puts the action and physical response within the flow of the prose and propels the story forward without interruption.

External events, such as the state of objects or the weather, can also provide clues to a character’s emotional state while indicating who is speaking.

Lightning scratched across the horizon, silhouetting Mary against the darkening twilight. “I want to get to the theater half an hour before the show.”

Readers will associate the spoke words with Mary because she is the object of the sentence preceding it, so there is no need to insert, “She said” before the dialogue. Using a word suggesting a violent act. such as scratched as opposed to flashed, adds tension and communicates anger. Placing Mary against the darkening twilight accentuates her dissatisfaction with the situation.

Still, if these or any other techniques are repeatedly used in close proximity in a story, the pacing can become bland.

Building a mood within a scene and exposing the character’s intuitive realizations can make it clear who is speaking, express the emotional state of the speakers and demonstrate the fortitude of their characters more effectively than giving physical descriptions of action alone. Here is the opening from my novel Beyond the Shallow Bank.

---

The oil lamp on the bedside table was turned down such that it cast more shadow than light. Margaret Talbot lay for an instant and panted as she stared up at the ceiling. Then the pain returned, like dozens of razors ripping through her. Margaret arched her back and muffled a scream.

The midwife leaned down and wiped sweat from Margaret’s forehead before standing to make the sign of the cross. Margaret cried out, “John.”

The door opened and her husband ran in to kneel at her bedside. His moustache was untrimmed and his hair was tousled. He took her hand in his and held it against his cheek. “I’ve hailed a carriage. We’ll be at the hospital in a few minutes.”

“Something’s wrong.”

He kissed her hand gently. “The doctor said labor could be hard with a first child.”

“Not like this. Something’s wrong. I can feel it.”


---

The lamp that sheds more shadow than light sets a mood of danger and impending trouble. When Margaret pants while lying on her back, we feel her tension and experience her fear that something bad is about to happen. When the pain comes, the sensation is that of ripping razors, an act of violence. Margaret’s fortitude is demonstrated when she muffles a scream, even though the pain is excruciating. When the midwife makes the sign of the cross, the possibility of death is suggested. When John kneels at Margaret’s bedside, his disheveled look shows his concern and his fear for Margaret’s safety that overrides all thoughts of himself. When he tries to reassure Margaret, her intuition warns her, beyond the reasoning of any doctors’ words, of the peril she is in.

Placing characters into a scene and carefully choosing words to describe the setting and action clarifies the emotions of the characters while clearly identifying each speaker.

Scammers Can Target Writers

When writers begin their careers, they are often desperate to find an agent, a publisher or people to review their book. Be aware that there are people using the Internet who are trying to take advantage of your desires.

After attending conferences, entering contests or declaring that you are writing, intend to write, or have written a book on social media, you may begin to receive Emails from people offering their services and see advertisements on your social media accounts that will claim to publish your book, review it, or assist you in selling it. I strongly advise you to be cautious with these propositions.

Here are some examples of Email letters I have received from people offering to review my books.
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Subject: Review your book
Hi,
I am . I organize book review tours. My tours are specifically focused on getting you the maximum number of reviews possible regardless of your genre. My network consists of around 16K book reviewers and 2K+ book bloggers. If you are looking for reviews on Amazon and Goodreads, I can help. You can contact me regarding the above on one condition: you consider yourself a SERIOUS author.

(NOTE: Inflated claims always raise a question in my mind, as does pandering to my ego by saying that I must be a SERIOUS author. Of course I am, or at least that’s what I tell myself.)
-----
Subject: Book reviews
Hi,
If you are looking for a reviewer who has professional expertise and experience in reviewing books, you may connect with me. I also offer professional editing and beta reading services.

(NOTE: Experience is the participation in events such that someone accumulates knowledge and skills. If someone has experience in a subject, they have expertise in that subject. There is no need to state both. The phase, "you may contact with me" should have been written, "you may contact me." Poor grammar and misspellings are often signs that the Email is from a scammer)
-----
Subject: I offer 40 GARANTEED book reviews
Hi,
I am of the opinion that an author’s time is best spent on writing books rather than marketing them. If you agree with me, feel free to contact me for my GUARANTEED review service for Amazon, wherein I do all the hard work of getting you up to 40 reviews while you focus on writing your next bestseller! Under my service, if you don’t get a review, you will get your money back for sure.

(NOTE: Guarantees of results is a red flag because no one can grantee outcomes or sales in the publishing world. Amazon only wants true reviews by people who have read a book and give more weight to reviews from those who bought the book from Amazon. A large number of reviews from people who obtained a book elsewhere, especially five star reviews, could result in those reviews being deleted on the Amazon site.)
-----
Subject: I'm an Amazon book reviewer
Hi,
My name is . Right now, I am studying English literature in college and love reading good quality books in my spare time. I am accepting book review requests. I read and review books from all genres. If you want an honest book review, you can contact me.

(NOTE: Saying that someone loves good books is an attempt to stroke the egos of writers. Trying to associate one’s self with a large company such as Amazon is an old marketing trick to claim legitimacy. I don’t know of many serious college students who have a lot of spare time between attending classes and studying.)
-----
Subject: Accepting book review requests
Hi,
I am studying English literature in college and love reading good quality books. I am accepting book review requests now. I enjoy ALL genres equally. If you want an honest book review, you can contact me.

(NOTE: People who capitalize words like ALL in an Email tend to demonstrate that they are either not studying English literature or that they have not studied enough.)
-----
Subject: Want a book reviewer/editor?
Hi,
If you are looking for a reviewer who has professional expertise and experience in reviewing books, you may connect with me. I also offer professional editing and beta reading services.

(NOTE: This is the same text as is used in another Email shown above that has a different subject line and sending address. Why should I be suspicious that this is a mass mailing? Hmm.)
-----

The samples presented above are all signed with only a first name and no contact information other than the sender's Email address. There will sometimes be a first and last name shown in the sending Email address, however I have received the same text of some Emails that use different names and addresses. They often come from Gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo and other online public accounts. Anyone can create an Email address on these platforms. Replying to an Email confirms that your addresses is active. The sender can add your Email address to their own mailing list and sell it to others. Selling private information is one of the largest revenue streams on the Internet.

There are many reviewers and bloggers who cover books. Their schedules are usually filled and it can take months before one of them may or may not accept your work. This long lead time and the possibility that a reviewer could reject your book creates a ready market for scammers who offer instant gratification.

I have also received Emails from purported literary agents offering to represent my book. Sometimes these will say how great a writer I am. They often contain vague praise that could apply to any book while saying nothing specific about mine.

It is tempting for writers who are starting out to give one of these reviewers or agents a try without asking the question, “How do they know of me out of the hundreds of thousands of other writers?” Praise and hope are powerful enticements that are used by scammers. The odds are heavily in favor that they have never heard of you and the letter you received was sent to thousands of others.

There are people who offer honest reviews for a fee. These reviews can be glowing or they can slam a book, the same as with reviews that are not paid for. There is a debate in the writing community as to whether or not paid reviews are worth the money. Some can cost several hundred dollars.

Assume that a paperback book sells for fourteen dollars and ninety-nine cents. If the publisher pays the standard eight percent royalty for paperbacks, the author receives one dollar and forty-four cents per copy sold. If a review costs five hundred dollars, three-hundred and forty-eight books would have to be sold just to pay for the review before the author makes any profit.

No reputable literary agent will ever charge you a fee for reading, photocopying, postage or anything else. Legitimate agents make their money by selling your book to publishers and collecting a percentage of your royalties for their services. An agent who collects fees has no incentive to sell you book and can make money by just collecting fees from hundreds of hopeful writers. If an agency asks for money, don’t deal with it.

In the world of offers over the Internet, it always pays to be skeptical. Remember the old adage, “If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.” Of course, you could receive an Email from Simon & Shuster saying that they heard about your book and want you to contact them. Just make certain that the URL in the Email address isn’t “simonandshooster.com.”

If something stands out in your writing, remove it

Crafting a novel takes place through the process of rewriting the book. The first draft is only a framework of the story you want to tell. Some beginning writers run their first draft through spell check and send out the manuscript, thinking they are finished. This is a mistake.

Even this article has gone through eight rewrites. After putting down ideas I wanted to discuss, I reread and edited the first draft, changing words here, taking some things out there and adding new material where it was needed. This was followed by a second edited draft with more changes as I looked for the exact words to use while making certain that the points I wanted to express were clear. After the eighth draft, I posted the article.

Of course, you also need to check for misspellings, typographical errors, missing words and other grammatical problems. I’m always shocked by how many times I can reread a manuscript I’ve written and come across a sentence such as, “They walked into building” when I intended to write “They walked into the building.” My mind subconsciously added the word the each time I read the piece. Sometimes these things go undetected until after the manuscript goes to my editor.

This is one of the reasons why anyone who intends to write professionally must hire a professional editor and not just have a friend or relative look over the work. Your friends and relatives may not be trained and experienced in editing manuscripts and they will usually tell you that the writing is wonderful because they don’t want to hurt your feelings. Worse yet, some writers send out manuscripts without having anyone else look at them.

Those who want to write on a professional level must invest time in rewriting. Mark Twain said, “The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug.”

There are many things to consider when rewriting. In the end, the writing itself must disappear to reveal only the story and the characters. A book can present themes and ideas, but without a story that involves readers in the characters, the book becomes a lecture and not a novel.

When readers pause to say, “Wasn’t that a clever turn of phrase”, they are taken out of the story and slammed back into their ordinary lives, dispelling the suspension of disbelief that is essential in storytelling, which must immerse readers beyond distraction.

Here is a good rule of thumb. If, in rereading your work, you come across something that stands out and causes you to become conscious of the writing itself, remove that word, phrase, description, piece of dialogue or characterization. If you noticed it, so will your readers. The story will stumble and any points you wanted to make will be interrupted.

Professional writing is not an academic excursive in showing off how much you know about writing craft, it is using the craft of writing to reveal the material with such impact that the physical presentation becomes invisible. Mark Childress, author of Crazy in Alabama, says to “Kill your darlings.”

Writers may believe that they can’t remove material because they might not be able to think of something else. In truth, writers have an inexhaustible source of material within themselves and their imaginations to create new prose that describes characters and situations. Others hope to impress readers by demonstrating a command of language. This is like drawing a set of gorgeous drapes across a picture window and blocking the view from outside.

You are the first editor in a rewrite, and you must be ruthless with yourself. Fight your ego if it tells you to keep material that does not serve the telling the story or the revelation of the characters.

David A. Wimsett is the author of Beyond the Shallow, a novel of a woman overcoming prejudice and searching for herself amidst rumors of the selkies from Celtic mythology, and Dragons Unremembered: Volume I of the Carandir Saga, a fantasy epic set in a world of gender equality where women and men have the same rights, opportunities and authority. The second volume of the saga, Half Awakened Dreams, will be released on September 21, 2020. He is a member of the Writers' Union of Canada and the Canadian Freelance Guild.

Getting started as a writer

People write for many reasons. Some want to publish their work professionally. Some want to share their stories with family and friends. Others want to leave a personal legacy as a history or memoir.

In non-fiction, your work can be entertaining and fun while discussing music, art, movies, vacation spots and other subjects. It can teach people important skills such as how to find a job, cook or garden. It can examine history to better understand where we came from and draw lessons for today’s world. It can document current events either in a journalistic manner or with your own opinions.

In fiction, writers can tell a rollicking tale of action or comedy, or place characters in tough situations where the way they react to pressure reveals their true nature and makes a comment on the human condition. Stories can be contemporary, historical, take place in the future or in a fantasy land.

In the same manner that an artist will use brushes to create a painting, writers use grammar to produce books and articles. It is the tool with which stories are built. You can learn grammar in high school and college courses. Another resource is to read and read and read anything you can get your hands on. Study each book. Ask yourself how the writer used words and constructed sentences. Note what you enjoyed and what fell flat.

A good book to consult for English grammar is The Elements of Style by William Strunk and E.B. White. This hundred page volume teaches grammar in a clear and understandable manner. It covers subjects such as punctuation, tense, brevity, misused words, clarity and more. The Elements of Style provides writers with both instruction and reference.

Yet, writing is more than an academic exercise in grammar. There is a second set of tools called craft. This involves skills such as developing characters, pacing the story, writing dialogue and moving the plot forward. College course on writing and journalism can teach these things. You can also find many fine books on the craft of writing. One standard for novels and short stories is The Art of Fiction by John Gardner. Another resource is Dare to be a Great Writer by my first mentor, Leonard Bishop.

Knowing the kind of writing you want to produce along with the audience you want to reach and a basic understanding of the building blocks of grammar and craft will get you ready to begin, whether you want to write something light and fun or a work that delves into the core of humanity.

Whatever you learn from classes or books, know that there are many opinions about how to write. Some of them are quite contradictory. Evaluate the advice with an open mind and apply it as you learn to write, but do not take any of it as gospel.

In the beginning, you will tend to emulate the works of writers you have read and the instructions of teachers in the classroom and from books. Over time, you will develop a sense of perspective and will accept, modify and reject some of what you have learned. You will also learn new things in the process of writing. Out of this, your own style and voice will emerge. As time passes, you may see both your style and voice change as you experience new events. Learning how to write is a lifelong endeavor. I learn something new every day.

David A. Wimsett is the author of Beyond the Shallow, a novel of a woman overcoming prejudice and searching for herself amidst rumors of the selkies from Celtic mythology, and Dragons Unremembered: Volume I of the Carandir Saga, a fantasy epic set in a gender balanced world where women and men have the same rights, opportunities and authority. The second volume of the saga, Half Awakened Dreams, will be released on September 21, 2020. He is a member of the Writers' Union of Canada and the Canadian Freelance Guild.

Are women in the workplace the latest Covid-19 casualty?

I listened to an extremely horrifying and enraging story on the CBC radio program, The Current (https://tinyurl.com/ycujk8dq).

Due to the Covid-19 outbreak, a woman who worked in an office could not find child care for her two children. She contacted her employer and offered to work from home. The employer told her not to worry and to just take care of her children. After hearing nothing back, she called and was told that they could not wait for her to return and had replaced her. Her employer never bothered to call. Now, she is without a job and has just bought a house.

Even after the gains of the feminist movement, women continue to experience prejudice and discrimination in the work place and are still considered to be the primary care giver for children. In the 1950s, some companies would not hire married women and expected single women who got married to leave the company because it was assumed that they would soon start a family and take on the responsibility of raising children while the men worked.

The action of the employer above has the potential to stigmatize all women in the work force. It is possible that some companies will use the pandemic as an excuse to exclude women and refuse to bring them back after the pandemic is over because of a fear that women will be pulled from work duties by family obligations. Such discrimination can be subtle, yet devastating.

As a man who raised a son as a single parent, I know firsthand that this assumption is unfounded. Men and women are both nurturing, yet we live in a society where gender roles are set in many minds that pressure men to work and women to care for the home and children. My son once fell ill during the work week and I called in sick. My employer told me to get a sitter and come to work because I was a man. The absurdity of finding any sitter who would care for a sick child is bad enough. The lack of humanity in recognizing that a sick child wants a parent, not a sitter, is worse. Women encounter this attitude constantly.

Even though two income households have become a necessity in our current economic reality for many just to make ends meet, women still suffer unequal treatment, a lack of opportunity for advancement and make $85 for every $100 a man earns for doing the exact same job, according to figures from the United States Census Bureau, even though women have proven, time and again, that they are capable of performing the same duties as men, including in strenuous professions such as firefighting, for which some men once argued, falsely, that women did not have the required strength. The gap is even greater for women of color.

Covid-19 is exposing many broken aspects of our society and economy, from hellish conditions in long term care homes that have existed for decades to homeless people incapable of escaping the virus and for people in the lower socioeconomic strata who have been affected in disproportionate numbers. Now, a roll back of the gains for women in employment could become the latest casualty.

Governments need to enact legislation immediately that protects workers affected by unforeseen disasters like pandemics so that they will have jobs to return to when the crisis is over. This is becoming its own crisis, on top of Covid-19. The jobs of both men and women are threatened, and women may experience the greatest impact.

David A. Wimsett was the head of a computer consulting firm for several decade and managed many women and men over the years. He is the author of Beyond the Shallow, a novel of a woman overcoming prejudice and searching for herself amidst rumors of the selkies from Celtic mythology, and Dragons Unremembered: Volume I of the Carandir Saga, a fantasy epic set in a gender balanced world where women and men have the same rights, opportunities and authority.

Handling Rejection as a Writer

RejectionNo one likes to be rejected. It has a string. People are social and want to be accepted, yet in relationships, business and school, everyone has experienced rejection. It can feel like a personal attack on ourselves and our values.

But, artists, writers, film makers, composers, actors, musicians and others who create and present works to the public must break past this concept and recognize that a rejection or criticism by an individual is just that, one person’s opinion.

For writers, they may feel that rejections by agents, editors, publishers or magazines are a comment on their character. This is not the case. The people you send your queries to are publishing professionals. Though they love books, they are running businesses whose existence and viability are the mechanism by which books reach the reading public. If a publishing house or magazine prints too many stories that don’t sell, they could go out of business and the authors they represent would be left with no distribution. These companies must select material that is not only the best writing, it has to sell and satisfy readers.

There are many reasons a book, short story, poem or article might be rejected. It may not fit the style of a particular magazine or publishing house. Many agents, editors and magazines work in specific areas. A great book about winter vacation spots in the Caribbean will not be picked up by an agent or editor specializing in children’s stories. That’s why it’s so important to research the kinds of work each magazine and publisher accepts.

Another reason is that they may already have too many similar works at the time or they may have a backlog of stories and are not looking for more.

It may also not be that your submission is not written at a professional level. In this case, the rejection is for the work, not you as person. The story or article may need to be improved or you may need to enhance your writing skills.

Most rejections tell you little or nothing as to why the work was not accepted. You will see phrases like, “this does not fit our current needs.” You will often be wished good luck in placing your story somewhere else. Neither of these things do you much good. Sometimes, however, you will get feedback. This can be a gift, and you should consider it carefully.

When I began writing, I was not producing award winning material. Very few beginners do. Writing involves craft that has to be learned and practiced constantly, often over many years.

One agent did me the biggest favor ever when he rejected my submission. He said that I included too many step-by-step descriptions of action that did not move the plot forward.

For instance, I might have once written something like, “George received his bank statement and saw that the service charge was double what it had been the month before. He walked out of his house, got in his car, and drove downtown. After parking his vehicle, he got out and walked into the bank with the statement in his hands to confront the bank manager.”

The only point of this little scene is for George to see his bank statement and to then go to the bank to discuss it.

Today, I would write, “George received his bank statement and saw that the service charge was double what it had been the month before. He went to the bank, statement in hand, to confront the bank manager.”

That agent told me something about my writing that I did not realize. This allowed me to examine my own skills and improve them. Some people would be angry that they were rejected. I can never thank this agent enough for his rejection because it allowed me to become a professional writer and author.

I have had writers say to me that their material was “Their baby” or “Their blood upon the page.” It is neither. What you write is just a piece of work and it either communicated your ideas effectively of it didn’t. If it didn’t, it needs to be fixed. Still, writers can expose themselves in their work. Even if a piece of writing is not autobiographical, the emotional reactions of the characters are often drawn from the writer’s own life experiences. Still, it is the presentation of the art that has been rejected, not the artist.

Don’t think of rejections as an attack on you. Try to learn from them. However, don’t make changes to a manuscript based on every rejection or comment. Examine each and determine if they expose a problem in your writing or if they are just personal opinions based on someone’s taste.

Certainly, there are individuals who make personal attacks on creators. The best thing to do in those cases is to ignore the comments. The same thing applies to people who criticize your themes and ideas that they don’t agree with. Those themes and ideas belong to you and you have to accept that anything you write can create controversy. Never reply to a negative comment on social media or elsewhere and never respond to anyone in defense of your writing. It can only start a war. Just let people say what they say and go on working. However, in instances of slander and liable, you may want to seek legal advice.

A very good book for writers is Rotten Reviews by Bill Henderson. This little collection of negative reviews covers works by authors such as Leo Tolstoy, Jonathan Swift, Virginia Wolf, F. Scott Fitzgerald and others. The book is not only amusing, it is an assurance to writers that not every opinion or rejection is well placed.

David A. Wimsett is the author of Beyond the Shallow, a novel of a woman searching for herself amidst rumors of the selkies from Celtic mythology, and Dragons Unremembered: Volume I of the Carandir Saga, a fantasy epic set in a gender balanced world where women and men have the same rights, opportunities and authority. Half Awakened Dreams: Volume II of the Carandir Sage will be released at the end of Summer, 2020.

The importance to writers of an author's personal website

I just finished a personal branding workshop by Jeniffer Thompson from Monkey C Media (https://jenifferthompson.com/) that was presented through the Independent Book Publishers’ Association. The seminar consisted of six, one hour sessions plus homework to hone in on each student’s strengths, weaknesses, audience and underlying goals in being authors. She stressed the importance of establishing a personal image and presence on the web. One of her suggestions was to establish a unique author’s website in addition to social media sites like Facebook, Twitter and Amazon author’s pages.

All of her advice was excellent. Up until now, I have pointed readers to my publisher’s website to see my books. I now have my own author’s site where I not only showcase my works with details and links as to where they can be purchased, I get to speak directly to readers about who I am as a writer, my own values and why I want to write. You can see what I put together at http://www.davidawimsett.com.

I was lucky enough to get a web address that matched my name. I also purchased the address davidwimsett.com without the middle initial and linked it to the main site. This increases the chance that people will be able to find me. If you are an author, I encourage you to claim your own personal brand by putting up a website just for you.

Authors Must be Marketers at Personal Appearances

The business of writing requires marketing skills. You have to get the word out to sell books. Some writers only want to deal with the art and leave the business aspects to a publishing house. Small publishers and university presses often have little or no budget for marketing. At one time, large houses provided marketing such as advertising and paid book yours. Not anymore. Unless you're John Grisham, a very good author who sells millions of books, even the largest publishers are not going to promote the books of most authors beyond perhaps a mention in Publisher's Weekly. To sell books, all authors need to hone their marketing skills. They need to participate in social media and make public appearances.

When giving a lecture, book reading or signing, authors must engage with readers and bring their message forward. They will never sell books by quietly sitting behind a desk at a bookstore while waiting for someone to approach them. Reach out, look people in the eye and say "Hello" to everyone who walks through the door. In smaller communities, most people will say, "Hello" back. In larger settings it can be a different story. One problem is that when too many people live too close together they tend to look on those that they do not have a close relationships with as if they were trees deserving no notice. If you are noticed, you might be thought of a trying to get something out of them. There is also the worry that if they talk to you they become obliged to buy something.

Don't let these people deter you. Keep a positive attitude. Be genuine in your greeting. Don't think of others as possible sales. Your inauthentic attitude will be telegraphed. Know in your heart that you are giving people an opportunity to learn about a book they might enjoy or that could change their lives. You have to believe in yourself and your work.

When you do catch someone's attention, have a 10 second elevator pitch ready to deliver. That's as much time as you will have. Boil down the 200 or more pages in your book to a single sentence. Bring out the main theme of the book and why people will want to read it. For a detective novel you might say, "Police detective Joe Doe must expose a crooked police commissioner with ties to the mob before he has Joe killed." An author of a non-fiction book about elementary school education might say, "My book reveals ways to teach your children how to excel in school with proven techniques that I have used in my career as a principal." The shorter the better. Don't go into long details or explanations yet. Get them hooked. Fans of detective stories will want to learn more about Joe Doe and his plight. A parent with young children who are having trouble in school will be enticed by the principal's message. If the people you are talking to show no interest, don't try to convince them. Thank them for stopping by and let them go. You will never sell a book to them. Concentrate on the next person.

If the people respond to your short pitch, give more details. Demonstrate how the book is different from others, how it will help them, how it will entertain them.

For fiction, talk about the main characters, overviews of the plot and themes. If appropriate, give the age range. Don't go into too much detail. Give a feel for the work and leave questions unanswered that readers will want to discover. In the theater we say, "Always leave them wanting more."

For non-fiction, you will need to present your credentials as to why you are the perfect person to write the book. If it is a book about politics, are you a journalist or politician. If it is a method of raising children are you an experienced parent or child psychologist. If it is a memoir cover what is unique about your life experiences and why people might identify with them. Potential readers will want to know that you can speak about the subject with authority and that it is something they are interested in. Describe key points that readers will want to know. Provide one or two solutions or answers, no more. You want to show that your book will serve them and you want them to buy the book to learn the rest.

Once you see that they understand what the book is about, ask them to buy it. You have to be polite and direct. Say something like, "Does this sound like a book that you would enjoy? I am here signing copies today. Can I sign one for you?" Don't wait for them to ask you to sign a one, but be careful not to sound like you are only seeing them as a sale. Always remember to present yourself and your book as a service. You have to know this to the core of your soul because people can detect disingenuousness.

If you are in the middle of giving your pitch and the person says, "I'll take one," Stop selling. Continuing can only ruin the deal. Just ask, "To whom should I delicate this copy?"
This will be difficult for some authors who fear public speaking and are terrified by rejection. You have to get past that if you want to make sales. Most people will not stop when you say hello. Most of those who stop will not buy. That does not matter. You are not actually selling books, you are selling your brand and you are the brand. If you can be personable, honest and present your book as a service, you will be remembered.

Don't be put off with responses like, "I'm fine" , "Not now", "I don't read (which is obvious because they couldn't read the sign over the door that said ‘bookstore' and probably thought they were in a pizza parlor)" and "I'll come back." Most people who give the last response never will, but some do after thinking it over. One person who came back said that he had looked me up on the Internet and was impressed with my bio. You never know, so be polite to everyone. Some people will come back to the store after you leave and purchase the book because they just didn't want to feel pressured. Those who you talk to might tell friends and family.

If you establish a solid brand that people find informed, authentic and pleasant, you and your books will be remembered.

David A. Wimsett is the author of Beyond the Shallow Bank, women's literature with a hint of magical realism, and Dragons Unremembered: Volume I of the Carandir Saga, an epic fantasy novel set in a gender balanced world. His articles have appeared in newspapers, magazines and online. He is a member of the Writers' Union of Canada, the Canadian Media Guild, The Professional Writers Association of Canada and the Writer's Federation of Nova Scotia. He is a professional photographer, a film maker and an actor.

How I Write

There are a wide variety of processes that different authors use to create their books. I can’t say that any one is better than another. Everyone has to choose the way they work best. Here is a little insight as to how I create stories.

One thing is universal. Writing any fiction, especially a novel, requires dedication, time and perseverance. Most successful authors will advise that you write every day, even if you only produce a paragraph. If you write a page a day, in a year you have the first draft of a novel. You are also intimately immersed in your story and charters. This allows you see the relationships of story and people clearly so that the work remains consistent.

Writing every day is good advice, and it is best to strive for as a goal. Of course, very few writers work every single day. We take vacations, enjoy holidays and spend time with our friends and family. I do take breaks. We all need them. Still, I work almost every day on articles, blogs and books. I take a paper notebook and a pen with me everywhere I go and write when I am waiting for a plane, a bus or a meeting. I began my fantasy novel Half Awakened Dreams: Volume II of the Carandir Saga on a spiral notebook in a restaurant when I was having dinner after a pod cast conference.

Some authors outline their stories in generalities or details. This can be especially helpful when writing mysteries or thrillers because these kinds of stories contain puzzles and the author has to organize all the pieces.

I have never worked from an outline. An outline can be used to assemble thoughts and elements, but it can also be restrictive. My preference is to start with an idea and perhaps a vague sense of where I’m heading, though none of my novels have actually opened the way I initially conceived them or finished the way I envisioned.

I allow the plot and the characters to grow organically. As I write, the process of creating the plot and characters suggest things to me that I had not thought of when I began. A plot can take off in an entirely unexpected way. As I become more familiar with the material, characters can expose aspects in my mind that were not thought of before. I usually have no idea of what will happen until I come to that part of the book. It’s like I’m watching a movie in my head and am constantly surprised by turns of events. If I had started with an outline, I would either be restricted in letting my imagination expand so that I would be forced to follow the outline or I would have had to constantly adjust the outline which would be double the work. I’m a little lazy, so I just write it once.

There is a symbiotic relationship between plots and characters. Plot places characters in situations where they must make decisions that expose their essence and the changed character’s subsequent actions alter the plot. For instance, say a character is planning to paint the kitchen on a Saturday. A call comes from a long lost relative. This causes the character to realize the lack of time spent with an aging parent. The character abandons the idea of painting the kitchen and pays a visit on that parent, an action that can bring about more character revelations and plot elements.

Now, I just created that on the fly. I knew I wanted to demonstrate the relationship between characters and plots, but I didn’t know how I was going to do it. I started with a character planning to do something, then the notion of an interruption by a forgotten relative came to mind, followed by the idea that this causes an emotional dilemma in the character who reflects on a neglected parent and that causes the character to abandon the original plan. In other words, I just made it up as I went. It was an exercise in discovery. If this story were to continue, it could offer the ability to explore any of the characters and dig deeper into their thoughts and emotions. The plot would unfold as the characters interacted. Poof. You have the beginnings of a novel. If anyone wants to take this idea and run with it, please feel free to do so.

Some writers work in chronological order starting at the beginning of the story and continuing until they reach the end. I initially start my books this way, but as soon as I have a foothold, I often realize that there are scenes I will need, though I may not know where they will be put. Instead of continuing ahead, I will stop from time to time and create those scenes out of the chronological timeframe.

They may be small, standalone plots that I will insert in whole someplace during the first draft or even in subsequent drafts. They may also be entire subplots that take place over an extended period of time. I might insert these in full or break it up and place the pieces in different spots as they are needed to move the plot forward or give insight to characters and their motivations. As I move through discovering the story, I will see where a previously written piece should fit in. Not all of this material will be used. Nothing can go into the finished book that does not move the story forward and enhance the characters. No matter how well written something is, if it does not contribute to the book it has to be left out. Be prepared to rewrite your novel in multiple drafts and allow yourself to change anything during the process.

This can be difficult for many beginning writers. They see the time and care they took and are afraid that if they discard any material they will not have enough to fill up their novel. Everyone who wants to write on a professional level must realize that all authors have an inexhaustible source of material within them. Their imaginations can manufacture new plot devices and new character interactions with just a little concentration. At 320 pages, Dragons Unremembered: Volume I of the Carandir Saga is 100,000 words in length. I threw out over 700,000 words of material. Entire plot lines, lands, peoples, legends and more sit in file folders that no one will ever see. Some of the material was just plain bad and had to go. Some of it bordered too closely on Tolkien’s elves and dwarves. I wanted original material without either. Other scenes were very well written but did not fit into the story.

Mark Childress, author or Crazy in Alabama, says to, “Kill your darlings.” If it stands out, if it draws attention to itself and takes attention away from the plot and character, get rid of it, no matter how much you love it. Remember, there’s always more where that came from.

Writing Gender Neutral Prose

For several decades, writers producing technical and nonfiction material have struggled with how to compose gender neutral prose. Before the 1970s the word “Man” was often used to mean all people, male and female. Likewise, the word “He” was used to mean a specific person who was either female or male. Instructions in manuals would read, “When the operator sees the red light flash they must press the blue button.” This created a fender imbalance in the language and implied that women were merely extensions of men.

Since then, society has looked for ways to be gender inclusive in writing. The first attempt was to write, “he or she.” Alternatives have been “she or he” – “he/she” – “she/he” and “s/he.” These were often rotated so that each gender reference alternately appeared first in sentences .

Not only are these phrases awkward, they persist in pointing out gender inequality by making a distinction. In addition, there is the question of who goes first, the male or the female reference.

Some people have suggested introducing new pronouns that are gender natural. None have been adopted. Even though the English language is very malleable and changes occur frequently, there are some words that are highly resistant to change. Those words include pronouns.

Others have suggested that the plural pronoun “they” be use in a singular sentence, such as, “When the operator sees the red light flash they must press the blue button.” This is simply not grammatically correct. Mixing singular with plural in a sentence sounds and reads wrong.

So, what is the solution? I have wrestled with this for years in writing articles, business documents and technical manuals. I suggest that writers always make their sentences plural unless they are speaking about a particular person, as in, “When operators see the red light flash, they must press the blue button.” There is no need for the ungainly “he or she” or to break grammar rules by combining plural and singular in a sentence. This is simple, flows seamlessly and does not bring up images of gender imbalance because there is no gender reference when writing in general terms.

If writers speak of a particular person, they may use "he" for males and "she" for females, as in, “Mary drove her car to work” or “Tom picked up his dry cleaning.”

There can be cases where a specific person being described does not want to be associated with a gender at all. A sentence could read, ”Feglarglata got into the car and drove to the store.” A problem arises if you want to say that a specific person drove to the store in a car owned by that individual.

This is simple when writing in first person. “I got into my car and drove to the store.” Pronounce such as ‘I’, ‘me’, ‘you’, ‘us’ and ‘them’ are gender neutral.

In the third person you might say, “Feglarglata got into the car owned by Feglarglata and drove to the store.” Repeating the individual’s name avoids any gender specific pronouns, but it is a little long winded and a bit awkward.

The sentence could also be written, ”Feglarglata got into its car and drove to the store.” This works, but addressing a person as ‘it’ sounds harsh and impersonal.

It is possible to write a complete story without any reference to gender and not get bogged down. Consider this tale.

Feglarglata owned a car and drove it to the store. It was a short trip and the scenery was pleasant. After finding a parking space near the front door, it was a quick walk into the store to buy some bread and vegetables for the party that evening. Feglarglata was looking forward to seeing new and old friends alike. There would certainly be an enjoyable game of charades.

The trip home passed the old city hall that had been converted into a community center. Childhood memories surfaced of days spent playing softball and making crafts.

At home, the groceries were put away. A quick inspection of the kitchen and living room showed that everything was ready for the party.

The doorbell rang and Grylke walked into the living room sporting a wide smile. The old friend said, “I have been looking forward to this. I saw the others at launch and they are all coming”.

The two of them shook hands. Feglarglata said, “Can you help me bring some chairs in from the kitchen. We should be able to finish before anyone else arrives.” As soon as they were done, the doorbell sounded again.